Originals: Effects of sports such as Strongman, Crossfit and Powerlifting on human physiology

A compilation was created in line with the studies on the effects of sports such as Strogman, crossfit and powerlifting on human physiology. The aim of the review is to compile the positive and negative aspects of biomechanical movements in different sports on human physiology.


Effects of sports such as Strongman, Crossfit and Powerlifting on human physiology

Epidemiology Studies

World’s Strongest Man or known as Strongman sport; It is a type of sport that consists of various games held every year. In common with the other branches we will examine, the benchpress includes movements such as deadlifts and squats. Crossfit, on the other hand, are competitions organized by a sports company founded in 2000. Crossfit, which can be considered as a type of sport today, consists of movements such as squat and deadlift in common with other branches [1]. Organized by the International Powerfliting Federation, the Powertlifting sport branch consists of 3 movements by nature. It includes the squat and deadlift in common with the other sports we’ll be reviewing. In general, it is seen that strongman power can be applied more than once, while the number of attempts in powerlifting is 3 at most[2]. Crossfit competitions are a time-based endurance sport [3].

According to some results obtained from epidemiology studies and surveys; In crossfit studies, 0.27% of the participants reported that they experienced disability at 1000 hours [4]. In another study, the probability of injury in strogman training and competitions was reported between 4.5% and 6.1% in 1000 hours [5]. For powerlifting, this rate is approximately between 1.0% and 4.4% in 1000 hours. Of course, it is very important to note that epidemiological studies are applied with different techniques at different athlete levels and the regions that affect the injury are different. It should be remembered that there are different possibilities of injury at different athlete levels[6].Apart from all these, as a result of research conducted on different runners, the probability of injury within 1000 hours is 7.7% among novice runners within 1000 hours, while this rate can reach up to 30% [13].


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Looking at the deadlift movement, it is the lifting of the barbell with added weights from the ground using both hands. The deadlift, which has different variations, aims to activate different areas, but generally appeals to the lower body and back area. The first movement we will examine, deadlift, is a free weight exercise in which the barbell is lifted off the ground using the knees, hips and ankles, and in general, muscles such as musculus quadriceps femoris (upper leg muscle), musculus trapezius and gluteus maximus (large ilia, butt main muscle) are also musculus biceps brachii. It is known to place stress on the tendon (lower head of the biceps muscle) and columna vertebralis (spine). In the experiment for electromyography analysis, it was observed that different regions were active in different deadlift forms (traditional, romanian and stiff leg). For this reason, it would not be wrong to say that different benefits and harms will be observed in different forms [7].

In addition, one of the injuries experienced in the deadlift movement is the injury of the Distal biceps brachii tendon rupture. Especially in the distal biceps tendon, there is a vascular water storage area. In case of insufficient blood supply, the role of causing tendon rupture is quite high. [14].


Squat, which is basically a squatting movement, appeals to muscle groups such as Upper Leg (Quadriceps), Rear Leg (Hamstrings), Hip (Gluteus Maximus) and Calf (calf) while squatting by resisting the weight of the knee. There are many studies showing that foot positions are important during squatting[8]. As a result of the studies, it was emphasized that squatting greater than 42 ° or close to 0 ° may cause injuries[9].

Bench press

In the studies for bench press exercise, injuries and injuries such as muscle tears, clavicle, rib and upper extremity damage, osteolosis of the acromioclavicular joint, glenohumeral joint dislocation and tendinopathies have been reported, especially in the pectoralis major muscle[15].

Different Researches

There are also different studies based on weight training. For example; The relationship between Weight Training and common cancer types was examined. According to the data obtained as a result of the examination, it has been observed that subjects who lift weights have a 25% lower tendency to develop colon cancer and have a lower risk of kidney cancer compared to subjects who do not lift weights[10]. In a similar study, the relationship between resistance training and ovarian cancer was examined. A total of 609 ovarian cancers were reported in the experimental group, which included 109,294 women. However, a direct relationship with resistance antennas could not be established[11].However, in different experiments on 106 women who survived breast cancer, some findings were obtained that strength training could stop bone loss. [12].


In epidemiology studies or similar studies, movements such as deadlift, squat and bench press, which are common movements in different sports branches such as Strongman, Crossfit and Powerlifting, were examined. Factors such as study groups, age ranges and genders of the reviewed articles were examined independently. As a result of the examination, it can be concluded that the balance of benefit and harm may change according to the variation of the movements and the movement form of the person. Contrary to conditions such as injury and injury, there are some studies showing that similar sports have positive effects, especially on bone tissue. Of course, much more in-depth research needs to be done in much larger study groups on both its positive and negative effects.


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This article was not financially supported by any institution or organization during or after its creation.


1 “World’s Strongest Man.” Theworldsstrongestman.com, 2022, www.theworldsstrongestman.com/about/.

2 “Disciplines – International Powerlifting Federation IPF.” Powerlifting.sport, 2022, www.powerlifting.sport/about-ipf/disciplines.

3 “What Is CrossFit?” @CrossFit, 2018, www.crossfit.com/what-is-crossfit#:~:text=CrossFit%20is%20a%20lifestyle%20characterized,who%20have%20trained%20for%20years.

4 Feito, Yuri, et al. “A 4-Year Analysis of the Incidence of Injuries among CrossFit-Trained Participants.” Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 6, no. 10, Oct. 2018, p. 232596711880310, https://doi.org/10.1177/2325967118803100.

5 Keogh, Justin W. L., and Paul W. Winwood. “The Epidemiology of Injuries across the Weight-Training Sports.” Sports Medicine, vol. 47, no. 3, June 2016, pp. 479–501, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0575-0.

6 Strömbäck, Edit, et al. “Prevalence and Consequences of Injuries in Powerlifting: A Cross-Sectional Study.” Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 6, no. 5, May 2018, p. 232596711877101, https://doi.org/10.1177/2325967118771016.

7 Lee, Sangwoo, et al. “An Electromyographic and Kinetic Comparison of Conventional and Romanian Deadlifts.” Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, vol. 16, no. 3, Dec. 2018, pp. 87–93, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2018.08.001.

8 Schütz, Pascal, et al. “Joint Angles of the Ankle, Knee, and Hip and Loading Conditions during Split Squats.” Journal of Applied Biomechanics, vol. 30, no. 3, June 2014, pp. 373–80, https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.2013-0175.

9 Lorenzetti, Silvio, et al. “How to Squat? Effects of Various Stance Widths, Foot Placement Angles and Level of Experience on Knee, Hip and Trunk Motion and Loading.” BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 10, no. 1, July 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-018-0103-7.

10 MAZZILLI, KAITLYN M., et al. “Weight Training and Risk of 10 Common Types of Cancer.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 51, no. 9, Mar. 2019, pp. 1845–51, https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000001987.

11 Buras, Andrea L., et al. “The Association of Resistance Training with Risk of Ovarian Cancer.” Cancer Medicine, vol. 10, no. 7, Mar. 2021, pp. 2489–95, https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3804.

12 Winters-Stone, Kerri M., et al. “Strength Training Stops Bone Loss and Builds Muscle in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 127, no. 2, Mar. 2011, pp. 447–56, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1444-z.

13 Videbæk, Solvej, et al. “Incidence of Running-Related Injuries per 1000 H of Running in Different Types of Runners: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Sports Medicine, vol. 45, no. 7, May 2015, pp. 1017–26, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0333-8.

14 Hsu, David, et al. “Biceps Tendon Rupture.” Nih.gov, StatPearls Publishing, 8 May 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513235/. 

15 Bengtsson, Victor, et al. “Narrative Review of Injuries in Powerlifting with Special Reference to Their Association to the Squat, Bench Press and Deadlift.” BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, July 2018, p. e000382, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000382.

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